By William Francis Magie
This is often the reprint of a well known and useful paintings that has been out of print and extensively looked for a few years. A quantity within the sequence of Source Books within the heritage of the Sciences, it contains choices from the writings of the nice physicists from the sixteenth during the nineteenth century--such figures as Galileo and Newton, Franklin and Faraday, Rowland, Hertz, and the Curies--making on hand to the scholar in English translation their most vital contributions, defined of their personal phrases, including biographical and explanatory notes by means of the editor.
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Among them were Lamarckists, such as Haeckel. Many thought that gradual and adaptive changes, whether produced by natural selection or Lamarckian mechanisms, cannot gather enough momentum to avoid being “washed out” by random breeding in successive generations. The mutation theory (saltationism) and orthogenesis were two theories that denied that evolutionary change is gradual and adaptive. According to the mutation theory, espoused by Galton and Huxley, species can show huge variations in just one generation.
339). Kuhn went on to specify that these “concrete technical results” consist of predictive accuracy and fruitfulness (of new phenomena or new relationships between phenomena (1977, p. 322)), and perhaps also scope, but not consistency and simplicity (1977, p. 339). 13 And the word “concrete,” which Kuhn himself does not specify further, is clearly interchangeable with “robust” in my usage. Signiﬁcance A theory that correctly predicts only that the sun will rise tomorrow does not have signiﬁcant empirical success.
Following the constructivist excesses of sociology of scientiﬁc knowledge, there is a new acknowledgment in science studies that empirical success is not manufactured wholly by humans and their instruments, but depends on the world. The main task of this chapter is to give such an account of empirical success that is also adequate for the epistemology of science that will follow. Three central issues will be: ﬁrst, describing the variety of empirical successes; second, exploring what counts as a robust empirical success and third, discussing the notion of signiﬁcant empirical success.
A Source Book in Physics by William Francis Magie