By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Earth Sciences
Only in the upper parts of open bergschrunds, where cold air can circulate freely, will there be any appreciable attack on the rock of the headwall. berm. An accumulation of material found a little way above the mean highwater mark on sand beaches. The berm is usually flat (although it may slope gently landwards), is of variable width, and is characterized by a marked break of slope at the seaward edge. Berms are created by the action of *constructive waves but their growth is not a very rapid process.
Bergeron-Findeisen theory. A theory of precipitation formation proposed by Bergeron in 1933 and subsequently modified by Findeisen. It suggested that ice crystals and supercooled water droplets could exist together at certain levels in the clouds where the temperature was between -15' and -30'C. Because the saturation vapour pressure for ice is lower than that for a water surface, there would be preferential deposition of moisture on the ice crystals, causing them to grow sufficiently for snowflakes or raindrops to result.
A pre-existing landscape that has been subsequently buried by younger strata. butte. A small upstanding mass of rock, usually consisting of resistant capping material overlying some softer though protected rock type. It has steep sides and is produced as a result of longcontinued back-wearing of a •mesa. Buys Ballot's Law. A law stating that if an observer stands with his back to the wind, then pressure will be lower on his left hand side than to his right in the N hemisphere. For the S hemisphere the converse is true.
A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)